A distinction is made between vaccination before a bite (pre-exposure) and after a bite (post-exposure). Pre-exposure vaccination is only recommended if there is an increased risk of rabies. This is the case for prolonged and/or high-risk behavior when traveling to areas affected by rabies, when working with animals on a regular basis (e.g., veterinarians), or for bat keepers. In order to have protection while traveling, 2 vaccinations are required with a minimum interval of 7 days. The protection starts working two weeks after the second vaccination and lasts for one year. If one has already received two vaccinations in the past, a single booster vaccination no earlier than 1 year after the second vaccination is sufficient for lifelong protection.
If there is suspicion of a rabies transmission (e.g. after a bite) further vaccinations are necessary. If one has already been vaccinated before the trip, two further vaccinations with an interval of three days are sufficient. If you have never been vaccinated against rabies, more than two vaccinations and an additional passive vaccination (immunoglobulins) are necessary.